In general, Jackson`s government has succeeded. By the end of his presidency, he had signed nearly seventy moving contracts, resulting in the transfer of nearly 50,000 Eastern Indians to Indian territory – defined as the region that is part of the United States west of the Mississippi River, but which excludes the states of Missouri and Iowa and the territory of Arkansas – and to open millions of hectares of land east of the Mississippi to white settlers. Despite the vastness of Indian territory, the government intended the Indian target to be a smaller territory – which later became Eastern Oklahoma. In 1791, the new American nation signed a treaty with the Cherokees with the aim of leading them to “a greater degree of civilization.” The main way to achieve this was for Cherokee`s men to abandon hunting and become peasants, which had been the traditional role of women. In the late 1720s, the territory of the Cherokee Indian Nation was located almost entirely in northwestern Georgia, with smaller parts in Tennessee, Alabama and North Carolina. It stretched over most of the northern border and the entire border with Tennessee. An estimated 16,000 Cherokee lived in the area. Others had migrated westward into today`s Texas and Arkansas. In 1826, the Georgian president asked John Quincy Adams to negotiate an eviction contract. In order to prevent local chiefs from accepting bribes to sell Cherokee lands, the Cherokee Council established a national committee in 1817 that did all tribal affairs. When Ross came to attend the council meeting, Ridge took him to a private conference and told him that he would be one of the 13 members of the committee. Ross was only 26 years old, a young man in a community where leadership traditionally came with age.
A month later, he was to face Andrew Jackson. In 2019, Cherokee Nation Executive Director Chuck Hoskin Jr. cited a provision in the treaty that the Cherokee “will have a delegate to the U.S. House of Representatives if Congress provides for the same thing” when he announced his intention to appoint a member of Congress for the first time from the Cherokee Nation.  Until a decision by the Cherokee National Council, Hoskin said he would appoint Kimberly Teehee, a member of the Cherokee Nation who was formerly a political advisor in President Barack Obama`s administration.  Aboriginal people have resisted by all means at their disposal, including through public and political debates and in the courts.